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东梓关农居:新农村建设的又一典型案例

编辑: 高天霞 | 2017-01-09 09:30 | 分享  

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gad杰地设计在杭州市富阳东梓关完成了其村庄的回迁安置农居。当前,在中国的许多村庄里,村民们居住在年久失修的历史建筑中,生活环境较为恶劣。杭州富阳东梓关便是这样的一个典型。为改善东梓关村民的居住环境,当地政府决定在老村落的南侧,进行回迁安置。第一期先外迁50户,遵循宅基地一户一宅的分配方式。项目“从单元生成组团,再由组团发展为村落”的手法为未来的推广提供了较强的可操作性。同时,设计探讨了建造过程与完成形式的关系,并试图实现对传统住宅形式的现代化转译。

 

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传统聚落丰富形式的背后具有相似的空间原型。设计团队试图从类型学的视角出发,抽象传统聚落形式的共性特点,还原空间原型。通过组织,以较少的基本单元,实现多样的聚落形态。设计从基本单元入手,将宅基地轮廓边界与院落边界同步考虑,在建筑基底占地面积不超过 120 平米的前提下,确定了小开间大进深(11×21 米)和大开间小进深(16×14米)两种不同方向性的基本单元。建筑基底边界和院落边界形成了一种交织关系,而非传统兵营式布局中宅基地和户内院落的平行关系。

 

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两个基本单元建筑基底的适度变化形成四种类型,并通过前后错动、东西镜像构成一个带有公共院落的规模组团。与传统行列式布局相比,这一设计在土地节约性、庭院空间的层次性和私密性方面都有显著提升。每个规模组团都有一个半公共开放空间,有助于邻里间交往及团体凝聚力和归属感的形成。

同时,考虑到村民对自宅“独立性”的诉求,户与户之间完全独立,不共用同一堵墙,间距在1.6-3.2米不等。若干个组团有序地发展成有机多样的聚落总图关系,这种“从单元生成组团,再由组团演变成村落”的模式与中国传统建筑的生成关系逻辑一致,也为未来的推广提供了较强的可操作性。

在基本单元的功能空间设置上,设计团队从农民的真实需求出发,通过问卷调查定向采集了信息,并结合各户年龄结构等实际情况,找出了居民的共性需求。最后的设计遵循了当地堂屋坐北朝南、院落由南边进入的习俗,并满足了后院洗衣池、电瓶车位、农具间、空调设备平台、太阳能热水器、堂屋、杂物间等实用功能的需要。

此外,在使用者生活方式和传统院落情结的结合下,方案用三个院落串接功能空间,并通过不同的界面构成了具有不同透明度的三个院落:前院开敞,内院静谧,后院私密,实现了一个“公共-半公共-私密”的空间序列。

 

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如何在控制造价、降低建造和后期围护难度的同时,在新住宅中延续传统的形式意向,是项目的另一难题。设计以江南民居的曲线屋顶为切入点,将传统的对坡或单坡顶重构成连续的不对称坡屋顶,并根据不同单元的形体关系,塑造出相匹配的屋面线条轮廓。独立的单元体量与连续的群体屋面的形成微妙的对比,多样性与统一性并存,构建出和而不同的整体关系。

在构图上,深灰色的压顶与白色大面实墙形成了强烈的灰与白、线与面的色调构图关系。在虚实关系的营造方面,外墙以实面为主,朝向院落的界面以半虚及玻璃为主,既保证了采光需要,又能形成内向感;实墙上的方窗与延续进每家每户的木质感格栅,在虚实之间完成了对“外实内虚”这一传统建筑界面特质的现代转换。

 

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项目还探讨了建造过程与完成形式的关系,以及工业模式与传统元素的关联。团队选择了砖混结构形式、保温刚性屋面楼板、保温防水外墙以及双层中空玻璃,并用白涂料、灰面砖以及仿木纹金属等商品化成熟材料代替了木头、夯土、石头等传统材料。在不同的砌筑方式下,24 厚的砖形成不同通透度的花格砖墙,分别对应着楼梯间、设备平台、围墙以及开启扇窗户等处。屋顶“内檐沟”的檐口设计利于有组织排水,并能将落水管于“立面”中隐藏。顶部压顶直接由混凝土浇筑出挑,近人尺度的一层挑檐等细节则采用传统的木构工艺建造。以工业感衬托手工感,并适度增加建筑的丰富性和层次感,呈现出江南白墙黛瓦大基调下,肌理质感的变化。这种对传统形式要素的提炼与转译,使得所选材料的加工方式得以体现在建造结果中。

 

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项目的完工为东梓关带来了复兴的机遇:原住民的回归,乡村论坛的举办,多家设计工作室的进驻,农家乐和咖啡厅等生活配套的逐步跟进……村庄的活力得到了提升,它或许将重新走入大家的视野。

 

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总平图

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材料构成图

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户型一层平面图

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户型二层平面图

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户型三层平面图

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户型一屋面图

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立面图

设计单位:gad杰地设计
地 点:杭州市富阳区东梓关村
业 主:杭州市富阳区场口镇政府
建筑面积: 15286.98 平方米
建筑造价: 198 美元 / 平方米
竣工时间: 2016
摄 影: 姚力,缪纯乐,胡栋


版权声明:本文由gad授权,欢迎转发,禁止以有方编辑后版本转载。

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